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Causes of the Civil War

Causes of the Civil War

 Table of Contents

Causes of the Civil War Learning Guide: Citations

Sources we cite in Causes of the Civil War

1 John C. Calhoun, "Speech on the Reception of Abolition Petitions, Delivered in the Senate, February 6th, 1837," in Richard R. Crallé, ed., Speeches of John C. Calhoun, Delivered in the House of Representatives and in the Senate of the United States (New York: D. Appleton, 1853), 627.
2 John C. Calhoun, "Speech on the Reception of Abolition Petitions, Delivered in the Senate, February 6th, 1837," in Richard R. Crallé, ed., Speeches of John C. Calhoun, Delivered in the House of Representatives and in the Senate of the United States (New York: D. Appleton, 1853), 627.
3 Alexander Stephens, "Cornerstone Speech," delivered 21 March 1961, Savannah, Georgia, archived by TeachingAmericanHistory.org, Ashbrook Center for Public Affairs at Ashland University, http://www.teachingamericanhistory.org/library/index.asp?documentprint=76, accessed 9 January 2009.
4 United States Supreme Court, Dred Scott, Plantiff in Error v. John F. A. Sandford, Opinion of Roger B. Taney, December Term, 1856; full transcript of Taney's opinion availiable at http://tourolaw.edu/patch/Scott/, accessed 9 January 2009.
5 Don E. Fehrenbacher, The Slaveholding Republic: An Account of the United States Government's Relations to Slavery, completed and edited by Ward M. McAfee (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001), 16.
6 Thomas Jefferson, Declaration of Independence, 11-28 June 1776, http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/declaration_transcript.html, accessed 9 January 2009.
7 John C. Calhoun, "Slavery a Positive Good", speech delivered 6 February 1837, archived by TeachingAmericanHistory.org, Ashbrook Center for Public Affairs at Ashland University, http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/index.asp?document=71, accessed 24 January 2008.
8 Election statistics compiled by John Woolley and Gerhard Peters of the American Presidency Project at the University of California, Santa Barbara, http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/, accessed 9 January 2009.
9 Election statistics compiled by John Woolley and Gerhard Peters of the American Presidency Project at the University of California, Santa Barbara, http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/, accessed 9 January 2009.
10 John Brown, "Address of John Brown to the Virginia Court, when about to receive the sentence of death, for his heroic attempt at Harper's Ferry to give deliverance to the captives, and to let the oppressed go free...." (Boston: C. C. Mead, 1859), available from the Library of Congress, Printed Ephemera Collection; Portfolio 65, Folder 5, [Accessed 24 January 2008].
11 Abraham Lincoln, "Speech at New Haven", delivered 6 March 1860, New Haven, Connecticut, quoted in Lincoln, Abraham; Nicolay, John G., ed; Hay, John, ed. 'Speech at New Haven, Connecticut, March 6, 1860' in The Complete Works of Abraham Lincoln, Vol. 5 (New York: Francis D. Tandy Company, 1894), 1860. http://lincoln.lib.niu.edu/file.php?file=nh560h.html, accessed 9 January 2009.
12 Alexander Stephens, "Cornerstone Speech," delivered 21 March 1961, Savannah, Georgia, archived by TeachingAmericanHistory.org, Ashbrook Center for Public Affairs at Ashland University, http://www.teachingamericanhistory.org/library/index.asp?documentprint=76, accessed 9 January 2009.
13 Eric Foner, Give Me Liberty: An American History, Vol. 1 (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 2006), 417.
14 Eric Foner, Give Me Liberty: An American History, Vol. 1 (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 2006), 417.
15 J.T. Moriarty, ed., Manifest Destiny: A Primary Source History of America's Territorial Expansion in the 19th Century (New York: Rosen Publishing Group, Inc., 2005), 42.
16 Michael R. Haines, "Population, by sex and race: 1790-1990," Table Aa145-184 in Historical Statistics of the United States, Earliest Times to the Present: Millennial Edition, eds. Susan B. Carter, Scott Sigmund Gartner, Michael R. Haines, Alan L. Olmstead, Richard Sutch, and Gavin Wright (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006).
17 Michael R. Haines, "Population, by sex and race: 1790-1990," Table Aa145-184 in Historical Statistics of the United States, Earliest Times to the Present: Millennial Edition, eds. Susan B. Carter, Scott Sigmund Gartner, Michael R. Haines, Alan L. Olmstead, Richard Sutch, and Gavin Wright (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006).
18 Michael R. Haines, "Population, by sex and race: 1790-1990," Table Aa145-184 in Historical Statistics of the United States, Earliest Times to the Present: Millennial Edition, eds. Susan B. Carter, Scott Sigmund Gartner, Michael R. Haines, Alan L. Olmstead, Richard Sutch, and Gavin Wright (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006).
19 Michael R. Haines, "Population, by sex and race: 1790-1990," Table Aa145-184 in Historical Statistics of the United States, Earliest Times to the Present: Millennial Edition, eds. Susan B. Carter, Scott Sigmund Gartner, Michael R. Haines, Alan L. Olmstead, Richard Sutch, and Gavin Wright (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006).
20 Abraham Lincoln, Second Inaugural Address, Washington, DC, 4 March 1865, http://www.bartleby.com/124/pres32.html, accessed 9 January 2009.
21 Quote from "Petitions of Slaves to the Massachusetts Legislature (1773 and 1777)," in Eric Foner, Give Me Liberty! An American History, Vol. 1 (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 2006), 215.
22 Quote from "Petitions of Slaves to the Massachusetts Legislature (1773 and 1777)," in Eric Foner, Give Me Liberty!: An American History, Vol. 1 (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 2006), 201.
23 John C. Calhoun, "Speech on the Reception of Abolition Petitions, Delivered in the Senate, February 6th, 1837," in Richard R. Crallé, ed., Speeches of John C. Calhoun, Delivered in the House of Representatives and in the Senate of the United States (New York: D. Appleton, 1853), 627.
24 John C. Calhoun, "Speech on the Reception of Abolition Petitions, Delivered in the Senate, February 6th, 1837," in Richard R. Crallé, ed., Speeches of John C. Calhoun, Delivered in the House of Representatives and in the Senate of the United States (New York: D. Appleton, 1853), 627.
25 John C. Calhoun, "Speech on the Reception of Abolition Petitions, Delivered in the Senate, February 6th, 1837," in Richard R. Crallé, ed., Speeches of John C. Calhoun, Delivered in the House of Representatives and in the Senate of the United States (New York: D. Appleton, 1853), 626.
26 Ulrich B. Phillips, American Negro Slavery: A Survey of the Supply, Employment and Control of Negro Labor as Determined by the Plantation Regime (1918; reprint Boston, 1958).
27 John C. Calhoun, "Speech on the Reception of Abolition Petitions, Delivered in the Senate, February 6th, 1837," in Richard R. Crallé, ed., Speeches of John C. Calhoun, Delivered in the House of Representatives and in the Senate of the United States (New York: D. Appleton, 1853), 626.
28 John C. Calhoun, "Speech on the Reception of Abolition Petitions, Delivered in the Senate, February 6th, 1837," in Richard R. Crallé, ed., Speeches of John C. Calhoun, Delivered in the House of Representatives and in the Senate of the United States (New York: D. Appleton, 1853), 625.
29 John C. Calhoun, "Speech on the Reception of Abolition Petitions, Delivered in the Senate, February 6th, 1837," in Richard R. Crallé, ed., Speeches of John C. Calhoun, Delivered in the House of Representatives and in the Senate of the United States (New York: D. Appleton, 1853), 625.
30 John C. Calhoun, "Speech on the Reception of Abolition Petitions, Delivered in the Senate, February 6th, 1837," in Richard R. Crallé, ed., Speeches of John C. Calhoun, Delivered in the House of Representatives and in the Senate of the United States (New York: D. Appleton, 1853), 627.
31 Thomas Jefferson to John Holmes, 22 April 1820, reprinted in Ray Allen Billington, The Making of American Democracy: Readings and Documents (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1962), 249.
32 "Famous Dred Scott Case," New York Times, 22 December 1895, p. 26.
33 United States Supreme Court, Dred Scott, Plantiff in Error v. John F. A. Sandford, Opinion of Roger B. Taney, December Term, 1856; full transcript of Taney's opinion availiable at http://tourolaw.edu/patch/Scott/, accessed 9 January 2009.
34 Excerpts from Edmund Ruffin, The Political Economy of Slavery; or, The Institution Considered in Regard to Its Influence on Public Wealth and the General Welfare (1853), reprinted in Paul Finkelman, Defending Slavery: Proslavery Thought in the Old South (Boston: St. Martin's Press, 2003), 64.
35 Quoted in Eric Foner, Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War (New York: Oxford University Press, 1970), 16.
36 Abraham Lincoln quoted in Richard Hofstadter, The American Political Tradition and the Men Who Made It (New York: Vintage Books, 1976), 141.
37 Abraham Lincoln, first debate with Stephen A. Douglas, Ottawa, Illinois, 21 August 1858, archived at "The Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 1858," National Park Service, Lincoln Home National Historic Site, http://www.nps.gov/liho/historyculture/debate1.htm, accessed 9 January 2009.
38 Abraham Lincoln, fourth debate with Stephen A. Douglas, Charleston, Illinois, 18 September 1858, archived at "The Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 1858," National Park Service, Lincoln Home National Historic Site, http://www.nps.gov/liho/historyculture/debate4.htm, accessed 9 January 2009.
39 Wendell Phillips quoted in Eric Foner, Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War (New York: Oxford University Press, 1970), 303.
40 Philip S. Foner, ed., The Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass, Vol. II (New York, 1952), 70.
41 Abraham Lincoln, fourth debate with Stephen A. Douglas, Charleston, Illinois, 18 September 1858, archived at "The Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 1858," National Park Service, Lincoln Home National Historic Site, http://www.nps.gov/liho/historyculture/debate4.htm, accessed 9 January 2009.
42 John Amasa May and Joan Reynolds Faust, South Carolina Secedes (Columbia, 1960), 88-89; full text of South Carolina's address to the slave-holding states availiable at Robert Barnwell Rhett, "South Carolina's Address to the Slave-Holding States (1861)," trans. Linda Teasley, http://history.hanover.edu/courses/excerpts/111sc.html, accessed 9 January 2009; source: Edward McPherson, Political History of the United States of America During the Great Rebellion (Washington, DC: J.J. Chapman, 1882), http://books.google.com/books?id=4hlCAAAAIAAJ, accessed 9 January 2009.
43 George William Curtis quoted in Eric Foner, Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War (New York: Oxford University Press, 1970), 309.
44 Horace Greeley, quoted in Robert Chadwell Williams, Horace Greeley: Champion of American Freedom (New York: New York University Press, 2006), 173.
45 Eric Foner, Give Me Liberty: An American History, Vol. 1 (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 2006), 410.
46 Edward Saraydar, "A Note on the Profitability of Ante Bellum Slavery," Southern Economic Journal, Vol. 30, No. 4. (Apr., 1964), 329.
47 Constitution of the United States, archived at Cornell University Law School, Legal Information Institute, http://www.law.cornell.edu/anncon/index.html, accessed 9 January 2009.
48 Abraham Lincoln quoted in Richard Hofstadter, The American Political Tradition and the Men Who Made It (New York: Vintage Books, 1976), 141.
49 Excerpts from Edmund Ruffin, The Political Economy of Slavery; or, The Institution Considered in Regard to Its Influence on Public Wealth and the General Welfare (1853), reprinted in Paul Finkelman, Defending Slavery: Proslavery Thought in the Old South (Boston: St. Martin's Press, 2003), 61-76.
50 See the bibliographic information for this digital file for "Effects of the Fugitive-Slave-Law," available through the Library of Congress website, http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/h?pp/PPALL:@field(NUMBER+@1(cph+3g04550)), accessed 9 January 2009.
51 William Henry Seward, "On the Irrepressible Conflict," speech delivered in Rochester, New York, 25 October 1858, http://www.nyhistory.com/central/conflict.htm, accessed 9 January 2009.
52 Opinion of Roger B. Taney in Dred Scott v. Sandford, United States Supreme Court, 1857, quoted in Paul Finkelman, ed., Defending Slavery: Proslavery Thought in the Old South (Boston: St. Martin's Press, 2003), 135.
53 Abraham Lincoln, "October 16, 1854: Speech at Peoria, Illinois," delivered in Peoria, Illinois, 16 October 1854, archived at National Park Service, Lincoln Home National Historic Site, Lincoln on Slavery, http://www.nps.gov/liho/historyculture/slavery.htm, accessed 9 January 2009.
54 Abraham Lincoln, letter to Joshua Speed, Springfield, Illinois, 24 August 1855, http://www.teachingamericanhistory.org/library/index.asp?document=1044, accessed 9 January 2009.
55 Stephen A. Douglas, speech in Chicago, Illinois, 9 July 1858, quoted in Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas, Political Debates Between Hon. Abraham Lincoln and Hon. Stephen A. Douglas, In the Celebrated Campaign of 1858, in Illinois (Columbus: Follett, Foster, and Company, 1860), 8.
56 Abraham Lincoln, speech delivered in Chicago, Illinois, 10 July 1858, quoted in Eric Foner, Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War (New York: Oxford University Press, 1970), 215.
57 Abraham Lincoln, fourth debate with Stephen A. Douglas, Charleston, Illinois, 18 September 1858, archived at "The Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 1858," National Park Service, Lincoln Home National Historic Site, http://www.nps.gov/liho/historyculture/debate4.htm, accessed 9 January 2009.
58 Wendell Phillips quoted in Eric Foner, Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War (New York: Oxford University Press, 1970), 303.
59 John Brown quoted in W.E.B. Du Bois and John David Smith, John Brown: A Biography (New York: M.E. Sharpe, Inc., 1997), 186.
60 John Amasa May and Joan Reynolds Faust, South Carolina Secedes (Columbia, 1960), 88-89; full text of South Carolina's address to the slave-holding states availiable at Robert Barnwell Rhett, "South Carolina's Address to the Slave-Holding States (1861)," trans. Linda Teasley, http://history.hanover.edu/courses/excerpts/111sc.html, accessed 9 January 2009; source: Edward McPherson, Political History of the United States of America During the Great Rebellion (Washington, DC: J.J. Chapman, 1882), http://books.google.com/books?id=4hlCAAAAIAAJ, accessed 9 January 2009.
61 George William Curtis quoted in Eric Foner, Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War (New York: Oxford University Press, 1970), 309.
62 Horace Greeley, quoted in Robert C. Williams, Horace Greeley: Champion of American Freedom (New York: New York University Press, 2006), 173.

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